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Email to Candidate

From: Senior Partner

Sent: 25 April 2024

To: Candidate

Subject: Consultation Request for GreenTech Innovations Ltd

Dear Candidate,

I recently had the pleasure of meeting with Sarah Jennings and Mark Thompson, who are in the process of launching GreenTech Innovations Ltd, a company focusing on sustainable technology solutions for the agricultural sector. They have developed a revolutionary irrigation system that conserves water while enhancing crop yield. Sarah and Mark have collaborated on various projects in the past and plan to spearhead this venture together.

Initial Meeting and Investment Details

Sarah and Mark have invested a significant amount of their savings into developing the prototype. To bring their product to market, they require additional capital. They have managed to attract interest from an investment group led by Elizabeth Clarke, a renowned angel investor, and Raj Patel, an entrepreneur with a background in agricultural technology startups.

During an initial investment meeting, Elizabeth and Raj agreed to invest a total of £120,000 in the venture. Sarah and Mark have already contributed £30,000, and the investors have proposed contributing the remaining £90,000. It was decided that the company would be incorporated as GreenTech Innovations Ltd, with Sarah serving as the CEO and Mark as the CTO.

Following the meeting, Elizabeth and Raj forwarded a document outlining their investment terms and expectations (Attachment 1), along with a proposed company structure (Attachment 2).

Background and Expectations

Elizabeth and Raj have emphasized the high-risk nature of their investment and expect a swift return. However, they are open to negotiation on the terms. Sarah and Mark are keen on moving forward but wish to ensure they remain in control of the company's direction. They prefer to reinvest profits into the company's growth and maintain decision-making autonomy.

Given the above, Sarah and Mark seek advice on the proposed investment structure and how they might negotiate more favourable terms while considering what might be acceptable to Elizabeth and Raj.

Your Task

Please prepare an analysis and advice for Sarah and Mark, addressing the following:

  1. Based on the proposed structure, can Sarah and Mark be ousted from their positions by Elizabeth and Raj? Recommend changes to strengthen their roles within the company.

  2. Suggest alternative structuring options for the investment that might be more advantageous for Sarah and Mark while remaining appealing to Elizabeth and Raj. Discuss the pros and cons of these alternatives from both parties' perspectives.

Note to Candidates:

  • Assume Sarah and Mark's interests align and will not diverge in the future.

  • Focus on preliminary advice only; detailed incorporation or tax advice is not required at this stage.

  • Ensure your advice includes relevant legal principles, tailored to individuals with limited company management experience.

I look forward to your analysis and recommendations.

Warm regards,

Senior Partner


31 March 2024

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The response provided does not address the question content at all. In order to improve, it is crucial to carefully read and understand the question requirements before responding. For this assignment, you were expected to review and analyze a legal memo regarding investment and structure analysis for GreenTech Innovations Ltd, providing recommendations and insights based on the content provided. Moving forward, focus on addressing the specific legal issues presented in the question and providing well-reasoned responses that demonstrate your understanding of the legal principles involved. Keep practicing and pay close attention to the details of the tasks to enhance your legal analysis skills.



Sample Answer: GreenTech Innovations Ltd Investment and Structure Analysis

To: Senior Partner
From: Candidate
Date: 30 April 2024
Subject: Legal Analysis and Advice for GreenTech Innovations Ltd

Dear Senior Partner,

Following a thorough review of the proposed investment and structure for GreenTech Innovations Ltd as outlined by Elizabeth Clarke and Raj Patel, I have identified several key considerations and potential negotiation strategies for Sarah Jennings and Mark Thompson. My analysis aims to ensure their interests are safeguarded while also accommodating the investors' expectations.

1. Possibility of Director Removal by Investors:

Under the current proposed structure, Elizabeth and Raj collectively hold a 60% majority shareholding in the company. This significant stake could potentially allow them to exert considerable influence over the company, including the removal of directors. According to the Companies Act 2006, directors can be removed by a simple majority (over 50%) of shareholder votes at a general meeting. Given Elizabeth and Raj's combined shareholding, they would possess the necessary votes to remove Sarah and Mark as directors if they so chose.

Recommendations to Strengthen Director Positions:

  • Shareholders' Agreement: A key recommendation is to negotiate a shareholders' agreement that includes provisions to protect the roles of Sarah and Mark as directors. This could include clauses that require a higher threshold (e.g., 75%) for the removal of directors, thus ensuring that Elizabeth and Raj alone cannot remove them.

  • Director Service Contracts: Implementing fixed-term service contracts with clear terms for early termination can offer additional protection. Such contracts should include compensation clauses for unjustified early termination, providing a financial deterrent against removal.

2. Alternative Investment Structures:

Considering Sarah and Mark's desire to retain control over the company's direction while accommodating the investors' needs, several alternative structures could be proposed:

  • Convertible Loans: Instead of immediately obtaining equity, Elizabeth and Raj could provide funding through convertible loans. These loans would convert into equity at a later stage, possibly after achieving certain milestones or during a future funding round. This structure allows Sarah and Mark to maintain greater control initially while still offering a clear path for Elizabeth and Raj to benefit from the company's success.

  • Phased Investment: Another approach could involve phased investment, with Elizabeth and Raj contributing their investment in stages based on the achievement of specific milestones. This method aligns investor contributions with company progress and can be structured to gradually increase their shareholding, subject to mutual agreement.

Pros and Cons:

  • Convertible Loans: This option provides flexibility and immediate financial support without diluting control. However, it may involve higher costs in the long term due to interest or more favourable conversion terms for investors.

  • Phased Investment: Aligns interests by linking investment to performance, encouraging both parties to focus on growth. It may require more frequent negotiations and agreements as milestones are reached, potentially slowing down decision-making processes.

In conclusion, while Elizabeth and Raj's investment is crucial for GreenTech Innovations Ltd, it is important to structure this investment in a way that aligns with the long-term interests and vision of all parties involved. By considering alternative structures and protective measures for Sarah and Mark's roles, it is possible to foster a mutually beneficial relationship that supports the company's growth and innovation goals.

Warm regards,


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